Organized crime is no longer something can be thought of on a local scale. It transcends neighborhoods, cities, states, and countries. The distribution of drugs through organized crime operates much like a transnational corporation. James Mittelman eludes to this in his work on Global Organized Crime. According to a Wired Magazine Article, in 2011, the cooperative activity between various criminal groups between different countries was valued at $2 trillion. Similar to transnational corporations, criminal organizations are also economic actors because they use market mechanisms to make money globally. These include the formation of alliances, investing and laundering their capital, using global information networks, and protecting themselves against risks. Cities like New York which are at the heart of globalization are prime locations of transnational criminal activity. Mittelman illustrates the globalization of organized crime by discussing the smuggling of Chinese immigrants. Technological innovations are not the only affects globalization has had on organized crime. Mittelman is effective in describing the ways in which globalization enables criminal organization to find people to exploit, and also how globalization allows them to maintain profitability. For example Chinese smugglers are well acquainted with the Chinese community of Lower Manhattan. Their connections allows for the global transfer of labor from Asia to the United States. Globalization has encouraged this shift in labor as the opening of factories in China pushed farmers off the land, and, in effect, forced them to look for work elsewhere. Farmer’s have been marginalized by China’s transition to a market economy who were not able to find jobs in an industrial economy. Crime groups tend to succeed in poverty stricken communities. Knowing that these people are desperate, crime groups make money off poor people’s impoverished condition by smuggling them into other countries as laborers as seen in the case of Chinese laborers.